& Deku, P. (2011). As part of Ghana‘s Education Sector Analysis on its IE experience, a simple survey was conducted across the country (in nine selected districts) to collect data on participant’s perceptions about knowledge regarding inclusive education, attitudes and practices towards inclusion of children with special needs into schools and solutions to barriers children with disability face in … It has been produced to inform the finalization of the Education Sector Plan (ESP) 2018–2030 and to ensure a broad evidence base for future policymaking. Muthukrishna, N., Farman, R. & Sader, S. (2000) the inclusion of children with Down syndrome in ordinary schools: a South African experience. Between 2011 and 2012, the Ghana Education Service with support from UNICEF intensified the implementation process of Inclusive Education (IE) through three approaches namely; screening of … Despite the development of IECE through Government commitments to both inclusive education (IE) and early childhood education (ECE); and as educational goals being realised, little research exists locally on IECE implementation and change practice. UNESCO, Paris. (Kuyini & Desai 2009) study of attitudes toward including students with disabilities into mainstream schools in Australia found that, teacher attitudes had increased in a positive way. Will We Make It? These challenges include lack of professionalism and attitudes of teachers, which have resulted in separation and segregation of students with disabilities. Reducing explicit and implicit prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. 4.1. Ofori-Addo, L. (1994). In the International Journal of Special Education, 15 (1) 86-95. Thus the proximal cause of behavior is the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior. & Desai, I. P. (2002). After twenty years of inclusion. Such a conclusion is supported in the current study where the students requiring major and minor curriculum changes were also less favored in company with those requiring Braille and those students using sign language. Allport (1954) stated that not all types of contact between diverse groups lead to acceptance of each other. Exceptional Children, 63 (3), 405-418. (2011). Stein, R. M., Post, S. S. & Rinden, A. L. (2000). 10 (2011), pp. & Sharan, S. (1984). Baker, J. M., & Zigmond, N. (1990). Answering questions raised about the implementation of inclusion in an interview with teachers I decided to write some of their responses verbatim; “Inclusive Education in the schools is not holistic” and its implementation is difficult”. Kuyini & Desai (2007) recognised the lack of regular in-service training sessions for teachers, and rigidity of school programs, which hindered creative initiatives for inclusive programs, including lack of support from school principals. In Table 2 most teachers were having class-size of over 35 students in which at least there is one student with disability. Applying a descriptive design based on measurable pre-established indicators, drawn from Anastasiou and Keller’s (2011) typological framework, the authors provide a systematic description of the 2008 status of special and inclusive education in Ghana. In the field of inclusive education this theory is without doubt of great importance. The absence of gender differences in this study is perhaps a result of similarities in the country`s traditional beliefs and culture. Lawrence Elbaum Associate Publishers. Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., Romchin, E. M., Eiss, N., Imbeau, M., & Landrum, M. (1997). Celebrating and sharing my experiences and journeys of inclusive education in Ghana. Teachers in the study view inclusive education as difficult, most of them agree that students with disabilities are placed into mainstream schools. © Copyright 2020 European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education All Rights Reserved | Terms of use. In this regard, the findings of this study were similar to other studies. (1993). The authors first delineate the wider human well-being and historical contexts. The Journal of Special Education; Bensalem; 34/4, p. 203-213. Although Ghana has been successful at closing the gender gap when it comes to completing school at primary education level, it is still high at secondary level. of how each of the study variables impact on inclusive school practices in Ghana. Journal of Research in Special and Inclusive Education, 7, (2), 104-113. The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmers. (1996). Asked about students playing and learning activities, one of the disabled students said they feel good during playtime there they play well with other students. State of inclusive education in Ghana Unpublished manuscript, Education Division, Ghana Education Service Volume 1: Policies, targets and strategies Apr 2003 20-20 & Wrightsman, S.L. The main challenges for special and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan African countries are discussed. In the context of The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and Intergroup contact Theory All port (1954), this study set out to examine the extent to which teachers` attitudes, influenced implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools. Ntombela, S. (2009) Are we there yet? Attitudes and there from resulting behavior towards disabled students generally transformed into the classrooms are based on strong religious and cultural beliefs which are entrenched in all aspects of the society. (2000), Stanovich, & Jordon, (2002) and Moberg, Zumberg, and Reinmaa (1997) stated that educator beliefs, perceptions and training should be viewed as potentially influential antecedents to their commitment toward implementing a successful inclusion policy. These findings support the theoretical framework of the study that positive contact leads to favorable attitudes toward inclusion in a learning situation (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Model 5: Inclusive Schools without Special Education Resource Teacher Support. A teacher added; “we had only a semester (one course) training in special education the fully trained special needs education teachers are sent to special schools. The phrase "inclusive education" has attracted much attention in recent years. Republic of Ghana's Policy on Inclusive Education and Definitions of Disability: Inclusive Education Policy in Ghana May 2015 Journal of Policy and Practice in … The extension of The Theory of Reasoned Action (Theory of planned behavior) introduced a third element, the element of perceived behavioral control. Comparing the effects of educational placement on the social relationships of intermediate school students with severe disabilities. Chapter 2 (Theoretical Framework): This describes the Social Inclusion. & Grant-Thompson, S. (1998). Sharma, U. Favazza, P.C. (2008). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Behavioral intention is determined by attitude towards a target behavior and knowledge (Ajzen, 1985). (2009). Furthermore, the produced outcomes compared to pre-established observable goals set in the Education Strategic Plan 2003–2015 were recorded to evaluate the progress in Ghana’s special and inclusive education. Group interviews were undertaken for reasons of contact and interactions reflecting Allport`s Theory of contact (1954), where opposing groups are put together to generate useful information for textual analysis on intergroup relationships (Favvaza & Odom, 1997; Kennedy, Shukla & Fryxell, 1997; McClenahan, Cairns et al., 1996; Pettigrew, 1998; Stein, Post & Rinden, 2000; Wittig & Grant-Thompson, 1998). According to Avramidis et al (2000) and Cook (2001), although the roles practice, teacher knowledge and attitudes are considered as crucial to successful inclusion, most mainstream principals' and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion were often negative. Cook, B. G. (2001). 1. How do Ghanaian teachers implement Inclusive Education? 2. What attitudes do teachers have toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms? Deaux, K. Dane, C.F. Supporting Allport’s (1954) theory, Amir and Sharan (1984, p. Exceptional Children, 56, 515-526. The narrative of the teacher had support from other teachers and the school principal. Kuyini A. Ghana’s Education Sector Analysis (ESA) 2018 provides an objective assessment of the state of education in the country. I can`t even hear what they say. Thus, according to Allport (1954) the three factors that have a positive influence on the intergroup contacts are equal status within the situation, common goals and authority support. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008. 3. Avoke, M. K. & Avoke, S. K. (2004). Research shows that adolescent girls are usually unable to get an education due to factors such as poverty, gender inequality and long distances from school. (1954). Educational Provisions and Inclusive Practice in Ghana Special Education Services in Ghana are delivered by specialized teachers and aim at providing disabled school age children with academic skills, enabling them to read, write and continue their education in accord with their needs and abilities. Gadagbui, G. Y. Development of a scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education. Inclusive Education in Ghana: A Report for the Ghana Government, Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare, Accra. As one of the teachers put; How can we teach a child with language problems? These conditions are met, to a large extent, through structured intergroup encounters that emphasize commonalities between the groups (Cook, 1978) or through contact that occurs between friends (Pettigrew,1998; Turner, Hewstone, & Voci, 2007). O’Toole, B., Hofslett, K., Bupuru, K.A, Ofori-Addo, L. & Kotoku, G. (1996). Earlier, Wilczenski (1995) in Kuyini & Desai (2007) concluded that attitude towards the inclusion of students with different types of disabilities was influenced by the amount of extra work or accommodation teachers have to make for the included students. They are often excluded from education and society due to physical, ideological, systemic, or communication barriers.LIGHT FOR THE WORLD strives for a school system that leaves no-one behind. & Jordon, A. Studies in Ghana, by Gyima, (2010), Ofori-Addo, Worgbeyi and Tay (1999) identified some key challenges, similar to those reported earlier by O’Toole, et al. The economy of the pre-colonial Gold Coast was dependent on subsistence farming, in which farm produce was shared within households, and members … Based on the theoretical framework used in the study, the results showed differences of teachers` attitudes depending on the type of students` disabilities and disability severity. Access to Education for Students with Autism in Ghana: Implications for EFA. Hillsdale, New Jersey. Inclusion: A guide for educators. The nature of prejudice. Retrieved from Wiley Online Library. A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Ntombela, S. (2011) the progress of inclusive education in South Africa. Inclusive Education: a casebook and readings for prospective and practicing teachers. Although, other background variables such as class-size also played a role. The implementation of public policy coupled with teacher attitudes toward persons with disabilities in Ghana has been saddled with problems. This involved the integration of young people with special learning needs into normal schools, without taking them out of the classroom (except in very exceptional situations), but by setting up teaching experiences adapted to all of the children, whatever their needs. This study set out to examine teachers` implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools taking into consideration teachers` attitudes toward inclusion of disabled students in regular classroom. Building New Identities in Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education in Ghana. Experience teaching students with disabilities, disabled students in the classroom and knowledge of special needs education were found to be affective of attitudes and knowledge and in teachers` implementation of inclusion. Emerging themes from interviews was coded and analysed with the respondents. Det kvalitative Forskningsintervju. the context of inclusive education. However, it was found in the study that gender did not have any significant role on teachers` attitude in inclusion. Teachers responded to both questionnaires and interviews while students responded to interviews only. The Intergroup Contact Theory states that the nature of contact between two groups determines the social acceptance / rejection of the minority group members (Allport, 1954). Donohue & Bornman (2014) point out funding as 41 a significant barrier to the effective implementation of inclusive education in 42 South Africa. In line with attitude formation theories and results from literature (Cornoldi et al., 1998; Deaux et al, 1993; Praisner, 2003) the results of this study is similar to those of Anthony, (2011), Avramidis, et al. Preparing general educators to teach in inclusive classrooms: Some food for thought. A JHS slow learner said he was supposed to be in JHS 3 but that he was repeated. The Ministry of Education has launched the Inclusive Education Policy which defines the strategic path of the government for the education of all children with special educational needs. The data was analysed qualitatively and results tabulated with percentages. Anthony (2011), allude to the idea that positive attitudes about the inclusion of students with disabilities into mainstream classes are often dependent on the provision of adequate support services. inclusive education systems, and in line with EU and international priorities , the Agency published the Agency Position on Inclusive Education Systems (European Agency, 2015). Special Research shows that, school is a social system with both formal and informal socialisation processes, and without formal socialisation happening among individuals and groups learning is not enhanced. More recent studies, (Agbenyega & Deku, 2011, Gyimah, 2010, Kuyini & Desai, 2007) have echoed these earlier findings, including the fact that many children with disabilities do not always benefit from the inclusive education; there is lack of specialised teaching skills, negative teacher attitudes, and lack of knowledge of inclusion on the part of the school authorities. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). International Journal of Educational Development, special needs, capacity development, education plan, Special and inclusive education in Ghana: Status and progress, challenges and implications. 43 In Ghana the implementation of inclusion is well recognized and policies The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). The general view about including children with disabilities gave in the regular classroom, gave the following typical responses: It is difficult to teach effectively in a class of over thirty students with more than one student with special needs, such as speech difficulty, sign language student and those needing braille we spend almost half of school time work on attending to these students and this is the first time some of us have students who need a lot of help to cope with everything in the class. 15, No. Home; About. Contact situations that encourage rapprochement between the different groups are that intimate contact permits the discovery of unique aspects of one’s counterpart in the other group. However, a small class-size in a country like Ghana could not be compared to small class-size in developed countries like Norway and Canada. Social outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms. A large scale study is required to identify other possible factors or predictors of attitude. 3. To examine variables of educators` attitudes toward Inclusion. To evaluate the outcomes and progress of special, and inclusive education in Ghana, we used the notion of SPEDC, and a set of observable ESP goals. Increased concern has resulted as teachers feel that they have not been given any guidelines or directives about including students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms (Ntombela, 2003, 2009, 2011). These findings reinforce an earlier assertion by Welch (1989, 2000) that the reluctance of teachers to include students with special needs must be addressed if a policy of inclusion is to be successful. Intergroup Contact Theory is used intensively by researchers to reduce tension among groups (Brown & Hewstone, 2005; Dovidio et al., 2003; Pettigrew, 1998), and, indeed, there is impressive evidence that positive contact is associated with more favorable attitudes toward the out-group (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Measuring attitudes toward inclusive education.Psychology in the Schools, 29, 10-22. Anthony, J. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (1), 101-106. DOI: 10.12691/education-2-3-5, Received February 26, 2014; Revised March 05, 2014; Accepted March 10, 2014. 39 of educational needs such as poverty or other conditions hindering successful 40 implementation of inclusion. Implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian Primary Schools: A Look at Teachers` Attitudes. Students` socialisation with others is not on the optimal. The above utterances by a teacher interviewed is a concern showing lack of consultation with teachers, thus supporting previous studies such as (Cook, et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751-783. Intergroup friendships: Integrated and desegregated schools in Nothern Ireland. The Theory of Planned Behavior is an extension of The theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) which asserts that the more favorable the attitude towards a behavior and the more favorable the subjective norms towards the behavior, the stronger will be the individual’s intention to perform the behavior. UNESCO, Paris. Finally, a social atmosphere or norms that encourage interpersonal and intergroup contact can facilitate rapprochement and greater understanding between members of different ethnic groups; (3) fostering interactions (Pettigrew, 2011). Detailed data is related concerning prevalence and incidence rates and special needs among the Ghana population. (1997). The Teacher Educator, 37 (3), 173-185. Ghana: This activity supports systematic strengthening, educational, and social inclusion activities at the primary-school level with two key objectives: i) establishing a framework to transform existing special schools and regional assessment centers into inclusive education resource centers while supporting a pilot training of staff in their new capacities, and ii) … All interviews were transcribed, and the unstructured qualitative data was coded and categorised according to the main procedures and techniques of Grounded Theory (Wesley, 2010; Kvale 1997). We support 20 inclusive education programmes in partner countries such as Burkina … Cook, S.W. Many students interviewed reported that teachers get disappointed when they don’t get their work done and teachers do nothing to help them. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Wilzenski, F. L. (1995). 2. To examine why teachers implement Inclusive Education the way they do. Ofori-Addo, L. (1994). In other words, are schools restructured, re-oriented and re-organised to create school norms /climates conducive for inclusive education? Highlighting the importance of these elements, Avramidis, et al. Studies have revealed that teachers` attitudes toward students with disabilities are different, and these various differences/reasons are dependent on schools` practices of inclusion. These findings raise concerns regarding the implementation of the Inclusive Education Program in Ghana, Anthony (2011), Ofori-Addo (1994) and O’Toole, Hofslett, Bupuru, Ofori-Addo, & Kotoku (1996). (2007). It would appear that regular classroom teachers view inclusive education as a decision from above, which has put them under additional pressure (Gadagbui, 2008). From these discussions there emerged a new concept of integration called inclusive education or inclusive schools. And are teachers implementing inclusion in any meaningful way to foster academic and social inclusion? I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. (2007). Political Research Quarterly, 53 (2). Inclusive education, as defined in the Salamanca Statement3 entails “recognition of the need to work towards “schools for all” - institutions which include everybody, celebrate In general, teachers were found to hold some positive attitudes toward inclusion, but had little knowledge of inclusive practices. The authors first delineate the wider human well-being and historical contexts. Negative attitudes of teachers were associated with large class-sizes and the presence of a student with disability in the classroom. It includes information on educational and rehabilitation services, special schools and integrated education. Students` responses are summarised in Table 1 below. 2000), and that administrators at their schools lack the understanding to effectively implement inclusive practices (Cook, et al. Vaughn, S., Kim, A-H., Sloan, C.V.M., Hughes, M. T., Elbaum, B. • SpED built capacity for inclusive education in the district through; – Training of trainers (TOT) workshop. This theory is linked to The Intergroup Contact Theory. One student with vision impairment had this to say; “the teacher told me to sit in front so that I can see properly what is written on the board” Teachers say I disturb so I should sit in front” said another student with hearing problems. The Journal of Social Issues, 54 (4), 795. The responses of this teacher and others were cited and their attitudes reflected. (June 3, 2008) -Inclusive education project, University of Education, Winneba. Progress has also been made on access to secondary education. We want to provide an improved quality of education for everyone. Results were discussed with respondents to enhance reliability. Towards the development of inclusive education in one district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. Teachers` attitudes though, deeply entrenched in the religious and cultural beliefs, is also due to the gap existing between either misinformation or lack of information or both about implementation of inclusive education policies. Retrieved from: http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/EdStats/GHAgmrpap09.pdf (Retrieved on 2011-05-20). Ghana Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR): Participatory evaluation. Cross-cultural perspective. http:/imp.sagepub.com. Two set of questions, one to the teachers and one to the students were used to collect data. This means the extent to which the person feels in control of engaging in the behavior. Allport, G.W. A comparison of teachers' attitudes toward their included students with mild and severe disabilities. In a group interview with students, they were asked to talk about learning and teaching activities in the classrooms and outside classrooms. But progress comes slowly. Social skills interventions for young children with disabilities. Qualitative data was analysed using observations, conversational and textual analysis of data. Wittig, M. A. In 1980 Ghana undertook a series of educational reforms under the auspices of the World Bank/IMF inspired educational sector adjustment of the Structural Adjustment programmes. Part of these reforms brought structural changes to the delivery of education in Ghana. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 537-540. Promoting positive attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. B. This picture of Ghana’s inclusion program from the forgoing creates a crucial need for broader investigation into inclusive school practices, the nature of school-principals’ and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion and their knowledge of inclusive education. They also believe that well controlled contact between children from different ethnic groups in school can have positive effects on social interactions among groups. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. It could be inferred from teachers` responses that attitudes of teachers` to implement inclusion is related to the type of disability and severity. One of the two teachers observed in the classroom was female and the other one a male teacher. These identified issues raise the question of whether or not schools in Ghana are conceptualising and implementing inclusive education in line with the basic philosophical ideas, as well as research underpinning the concept. These politicians are not in the classrooms themselves so they can write what they want! Vaughn, S., Elbaum, B. E., Shumm, J. S. & Hughes, M. T. (1998). The International Journal of Learning, 374 (9704), 1795-1796. Inclusive education means all children and young people are engaged and achieve through being present, participating, learning and belonging. Interpersonal and attitudinal outcomes in cooperating interracial groups. This case study investigates the special and inclusive education in Ghana. We are less informed about how to include students with disabilities in the normal classroom. However, an examination of literature and practice shows that the term has come to mean different things to different people. Format), Citation-(EndNote It is also essential to acquire an understanding of the impact of these variables on practices of inclusion. This statement by the teacher indicates that teachers' and principals` knowledge about and attitudes towards inclusive education are related. Reconciling context and contact effects on racial attitudes. Measuring Concerns about Integrated Education in India. Further, principals and teachers have often demonstrated considerable lack of knowledge about students with disabilities and inclusion (Schumm & Vaughn; 1995; Tomlinson, Callahan, Eiss, Imbeau, & Landrum, 1997), and teachers have often used more undifferentiated large-group instruction with few adaptations to meet the needs of included students (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). In a group interview with teachers and when asked the question: “what do you think about language disability students?” One of the teachers had this to say: The students use a lot of time to answer simple questions. Finally, teachers appear to believe that they have had no choice about and no part in the process of inclusion in Ghanaian schools. These findings are consistent with research studies which point to a generally positive view held by teachers in mainstream settings regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities.

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